Major lathe tool operations for component fabrication

Lathe machines tools are the versatile and widely used tools that are also called as mother machine tool. A cutting tool is advanced that is stationary against the rotating process. As the cutting tool material is harder than the work component, a metal is easily separated from the tool. The tools are commonly used for facing, turning, drilling, threading, boring and more.

To perform different lathe operations different tools and equipments are used such as parting tool, knurling tool, form tool method, tail stock set, swivelling the compound rest and taper turning connection.

Facing: Facing refers to machining the ends of material to develop a flat surface square with an axis. It involves feeding the tool normal to the axis of rotation of the material.

Rough Turning Operation: It refers to removing an excess material from the work piece in a nominal duration by applying large feed rate and heavy cut depth. The cut depth for roughing operations in machining the material is 2 to 5 mm and feed rate is 0.3 to 1.5mm per revolution of the work component.

Step Turning: An operation of developing different diameters of required length. The lengths and diameters are measured by external calliper and steel rule.

Taper Turning: It describes a uniform increase or decrease of material diameter measured along its length. Using lathe machine, taper turning refers to development of a conical surface by significant diameter reduction.

Knurling: It is a process of embossing a diamond design of the material surface. Knurling helps to provide a suitable gripping surface on the component to prevent it from slipping when operated by hand. Knurling is done by using a specific knurling tool that comprises of a set of hardened steel rollers in a holder with a teeth cut on their surface in a specific design. Holding the tool rigidly on the post, the rollers are pressed against rotating surface of material to squeeze the metal against multiple cutting edges, creating depressions in a regular pattern on the surface of the component.

Chamfering: It is a process of bevelling the external end of a component. It is performed to eliminate the burrs, to secure the end of a material from getting deformed and to receive an enhanced appearance. The operation can be done after the completion of operations. It is an important process after thread cutting so that the nut can pass freely on the threaded component.

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